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32讲小升初英语语法刷书班:定语从句介词的正确选择

2019-08-07 17:25:51
介词的正确选择



1. 根据后面动词和介词的搭配关系选择。如:
 
①This is not the book of which the teacher spoke in class. (speak of 意为“谈论”,相当于talk about)
②The two things of which they felt proud were Jim’s gold watch and Della’s hair. (be / feel proud of 为固定短语,意为“以……自豪”。)
 
2. 根据前面的名词的搭配关系选择。如:
 
①I’ll never forget the day on which I first met him. (表示具体的某一天,介词用on)
②The boy pointed to the direction in which he would run. (“朝……方向”,介词用in)
 
3. 有时需同时考虑动词和介词的搭配关系及介词和名词的搭配关系。如:
 
The clever boy made a hole in the wall, through which he could see what was happening inside the house.
 
介词和关系代词
 
1)介词后面的关系代词不能省略。
2)“that”前“Do you”作介词的宾语,且可以省略。
例如:
(1)The school(that/which)he once studied in is very famous。
“that/which”可以省略。= The school in which he once studied is very famous。“which”不可省略。
(2) 含有介词的短语动词一般不拆开,介词仍放在短语动词的后面。如:look for, look after, take care of等。T This is the watch which/that I am looking for。(T=正确)F This is the watch for which I am looking。(F=错误)
 
2. 若介词放在关系代词前,关系代词指人时用“whom”,不可用“who”或者“that”;指物时用“which”,不能用“that”;关系代词是所有格时用“whose”
(1)The man with whom you talked is my friend.(T)The man famous.
(2)I bought many books yesterday, three of which are written by Lu Xun.
 
 
关系代词关系代词(一般情况下)“that”可用在从句做主语,谓动词的宾语,但是不能做介词的宾语。“which”指物,在从句中作主语;“whom”在从句中作宾语;“why”在从句中修语,先行词通常是“the reason”;有时“why”也可用“for+which”代替。
 
例:A doctor who looks after people's health。主语 谓语 先行词 定语从句修饰先行词
 
 
判断介词和关系代词方法一 : 用关系代词还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词:不及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系副词或者是介词加关系代词;而及物动词后接宾语,则要求用关系代词。
例如: This is the mountain village where I stayed last year.
判断改错:(错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year.
(错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside.
(对) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year.
(对) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside。
 
例. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held?A. where B. that C. on which D. the one,解析: 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词where,又因 in the museum词组,可用介词in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词on 用的不对,所以选A。
 
关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、宾语时,选择关系代词(who, whom, that, which, whose); 先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词(“where”地点状语,“when”时间状语,“why”原因状语)。
 
 
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